Methods are provided for the treatment of cardiovascular or metabolic diseases characterized by elevated serum total cholesterol, elevated serum LDL-cholesterol, or elevated serum triglycerides, through the administration of an oligomeric compound which modulates the levels or activity of miR-122a. Further provided are methods for reducing hepatic steatosis or liver tissue triglyceride accumulation through the administration of an oligomeric compound which modulates the levels or activity of miR-122a. Such methods employ oligomeric compounds which hybridize with or sterically interfere with nucleic acid molecules comprising or encoding miR-122a. Such oligomeric compounds may include one or more modifications thereon, which may improve the activity, stability, or nuclease resistance of the oligomeric compound. These modified oligomeric compounds are used as single compounds or in compositions, including pharmaceutical compositions, to modulate or mimic the targeted nucleic acid comprising or encoding miR-122a.